Bibliography
[1]

C Abbara, JM Rousseau, B Lelièvre, A Turcant, G Lallement, S Ferec, I Bardot, and B Diquet. Pharmacokinetic analysis of pralidoxime after its intramuscular injection alone or in combination with atropine-avizafone in healthy volunteers. British journal of pharmacology, 161(8):1857–1867, 2010.

[2]

Andrea Adoni and Molly McNett. The pupillary response in traumatic brain injury: A guide for trauma nurses. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 14(04):191–198, 2007.

[3]

AR Aitkenhead, DR Derbyshire, CA Pinnock, K Achola, and G Smith. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous naloxone in healthy volunteers. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 61(3):A381–A381, 1984.

[4]

K. S. Matthys P. Segers S. J. Sherwin P. R. Verdonck K. H. Parker J. Peiro Alastruey J., A. W. Khir. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-d visco-elastic simulations against in vitro measurements. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:2250–2258, 2011.

[5]

FRANK P ALFORD, SR Bloom, and JDN Nabarro. Glucagon metabolism in man. studies on the metabolic clearance rate and the plasma acute disappearance time of glucagon in normal and diabetic subjects. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 42(5):830–838, 1976.

[6]

Warwick P Anderson, Debra E Ramsey, and Masanobu Takata. Development of hypertension from unilateral renal artery stenosis in conscious dogs. Hypertension, 16(4):441–451, 1990.

[7]

Paula J Anderson, Xiang Zhou, Phil Breen, Larry Gann, Todd W Logsdon, Cesar M Compadre, and F Charles Hiller. Pharmacokinetics of (r, s)-albuterol after aerosol inhalation in healthy adult volunteers. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 87(7):841–844, 1998.

[8]

Compt Antoine. Tensions des vapeurs; nouvelle relation entre les tensions et les températures. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, 107:681–684, 1888.

[9]

Jonas Appiah-Ankam and Jennifer M Hunter. Pharmacology of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain, 4(1):2–7, 2004.

[10]

Kristy B Arbogast, Matthew R Maltese, Vinay M Nadkarni, Andreas Steen Petter, and Jon B Nysaether. Anterior-posterior thoracic force-deflection characteristics measured during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison to post-mortem human subject data. Stapp car crash journal, 50:131, 2006.

[11]

Clay M Armstrong. The na/k pump, cl ion, and osmotic stabilization of cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(10):6257–6262, 2003.

[12]

JULIAN M Aroesty, RAYMOND G McKay, GARY V Heller, HENRY D Royal, AV Als, and WILLIAM Grossman. Simultaneous assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction during pacing-induced ischemia. Circulation, 71(5):889–900, 1985.

[13]

RA Bache, WM Gray, and DJ Murray-Smith. Time-domain system identification applied to noninvasive estimation of cardiopulmonary quantities. In Control Theory and Applications, IEE Proceedings D, volume 128, pages 56–64. IET, 1981.

[14]

Lindsay B Baker, John R Stofan, Adam A Hamilton, and Craig A Horswill. Comparison of regional patch collection vs. whole body washdown for measuring sweat sodium and potassium loss during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(3):887–895, 2009.

[15]

Edward J Baldes and FH Smirk. The effect of water drinking, mineral starvation and salt administration on the total osmotic pressure of the blood in man, chiefly in relation to the problems of water absorption and water diuresis. The Journal of physiology, 82(1):62, 1934.

[16]

Marcella Balestreri, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Hutchinson, Luzius A Steiner, Magda Hiler, Piotr Smielewski, and John D Pickard. Impact of intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure on severe disability and mortality after head injury. Neurocritical Care, 06(04):8–13, 2006.

[17]

J et al. Batzel. A cardiovascular-respiratory control system model including state delay with application to congestive heart failure in humans. J. Math. Biol., 50:293–335, 2005.

[18]

Rinaldo Bellomo. Bench-to-bedside review: lactate and the kidney. Critical Care, 6(4):322, 2002.

[19]

JAMES D BEST and JEFFREY B HALTER. Release and clearance rates of epinephrine in man: importance of arterial measurements. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 55(2):263–268, 1982.

[20]

Christine Betchley, Jane Q Koenig, Gerald Van Belle, Harvey Checkoway, and Timothy Reinhardt. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in forest firefighters. American journal of industrial medicine, 31(5):503–509, 1997.

[21]

R Bhattacharya, SJS Flora, and RC Gupta. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents. Academic Press, Boston, pages 255–270, 2009.

[22]

François Billaut, Magali Giacomoni, and Guy Falgairette. Maximal intermittent cycling exercise: effects of recovery duration and gender. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(4):1632–1637, 2003.

[23]

RM Black and JM Harrison. The chemistry of organophosphorus chemical warfare agents. Patai's Chemistry of Functional Groups, 1996.

[24]

Judith Blaine, Michel Chonchol, and Moshe Levi. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, pages CJN–09750913, 2014.

[25]

Michael P Bohrer, Christine Baylis, H David Humes, Richard J Glassock, Channing R Robertson, and Barry M Brenner. Permselectivity of the glomerular capillary wall: facilitated filtration of circulating polycations. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 61(1):72, 1978.

[26]

Casey Bond, Patricia R Hastings, Andrew N Pollak, and Jennifer Kling. 68W Advanced Field Craft: Combat Medic Skills. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2009.

[27]

Walter F Boron and Emile L Boulpaep. Medical physiology. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012.

[28]

Kathleen M Botham, Michael Avella, Alfredo Cantafora, and Elena Bravo. The lipolysis of chylomicrons derived from different dietary fats by lipoprotein lipase in vitro. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, 1349(3):257–263, 1997.

[29]

Emile L Boulpaep, Walter F Boron, Michael J Caplan, Lloyd Cantley, Peter Igarashi, Peter S Aronson, and Edward G Moczydlowski. Medical physiology a cellular and molecular approach. Signal Transduction, 48:27, 2009.

[30]

C. Boutelier, L. Bougues, and J. Timbal. Experimental study of convective heat transfer coefficient for the human body in water. Journal of Applied Physiology, 42(1):93–100, 1977.

[31]

Brandfonbrener and others. Changes in cardiac output with age. Circulation, 1955.

[32]

Joseph D Bronzino. Biomedical engineering handbook, volume 2. CRC press, 1999.

[33]

Rebecca J Brown, Ninet Sinaii, and Kristina I Rother. Too much glucagon, too little insulin. Diabetes Care, 31(7):1403–1404, 2008.

[34]

Josef Brozek, Francisco Grande, Joseph T Anderson, and Ancel Keys. Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 110(1):113–140, 1963.

[35]

Eugene N Bruce and Margaret C Bruce. A multicompartment model of carboxyhemoglobin and carboxymyoglobin responses to inhalation of carbon monoxide. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(3):1235–1247, 2003.

[36]

S. et al. Budwiser. Prognostic value of mouth occlusion pressure in patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Respir Med, 101:2343–2351, 2007.

[37]

Christopher Byrne and Chin Leong Lim. The ingestible telemetric body core temperature sensor: a review of validity and exercise applications. British journal of sports medicine, 41(3):126–133, 2007.

[38]

Suncica Canic and Eun Heui Kim. Mathematical analysis of the quasilinear effects in a hyperbolic model blood flow through compliant axi-symmetric vessels. Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, 26(14):1161–1186, 2003.

[39]

Thiago C Carvalho, Jay I Peters, and Robert O Williams. Influence of particle size on regional lung deposition–what evidence is there? International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 406(1):1–10, 2011.

[40]

JP Chalmers, PI Korner, and SW White. The effects of haemorrhage in the unanaesthetized rabbit. The Journal of Physiology, 189(3):367–391, 1967.

[41]

Cheng Chang, Wonkyung Byon, Yifeng Lu, Leslie K Jacobsen, Lori L Badura, Aarti Sawant-Basak, Emily Miller, Jing Liu, Sarah Grimwood, Ellen Q Wang, and others. Quantitative pk–pd model-based translational pharmacology of a novel kappa opioid receptor antagonist between rats and humans. The AAPS journal, 13(4):565–575, 2011.

[42]

CLAIRE Chascione, DAVID H Elwyn, MARIA Davila, KAREN M Gil, JEFFREY Askanazi, and JOHN M Kinney. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 253(6):E664–E669, 1987.

[43]

NW Chase Jr, CA Davies, JR Downey Jr, DJ Frurip, RA McDonald, and AN Syverud. Journal of physical and chemical reference data. JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 1985.

[44]

K Chatterjee. Systolic and diastolic heart failure: Differences and similarities. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 13, 2007.

[45]

Samuel N Cheuvront and Robert W Kenefick. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects. Comprehensive Physiology, 2014.

[46]

Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick, Kristen R Heavens, and Marissa G Spitz. A comparison of whole blood and plasma osmolality and osmolarity. Journal of clinical laboratory analysis, 28(5):368–373, 2014.

[47]

Rachel B Clipp and Brooke N Steele. Impedance boundary conditions for the pulmonary vasculature including the effects of geometry, compliance, and respiration. Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, 56(3):862–870, 2009.

[48]

Rachel Clipp and Brooke Steele. An evaluation of dynamic outlet boundary conditions in a 1d fluid dynamics model. Mathematical biosciences and engineering: MBE, 9(1):61, 2012.

[49]

William E Clutter, Dennis M Bier, Suresh D Shah, and Philip E Cryer. Epinephrine plasma metabolic clearance rates and physiologic thresholds for metabolic and hemodynamic actions in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 66:94–101, 1980.

[50]

RF Coburn, RE Forster, and PB Kane. Considerations of the physiological variables that determine the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in man. Journal of clinical investigation, 44(11):1899, 1965.

[51]

Concept 2 indoor rowers: Watts calculator.

[52]

AC Corcoran and Irvine H Page. Effects of hypotension due to hemorrhage and of blood transfusion on renal function in dogs. The Journal of experimental medicine, 78(3):205–224, 1943.

[53]

Linda Costanzo. BRS Physiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.

[54]

National Research Council, Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, and others. Acute exposure guideline levels for selected airborne chemicals, volume 9. National Academies Press, 2009.

[55]

Marc Courtemanche, Rafael J Ramirez, and Stanley Nattel. Ionic mechanisms underlying human atrial action potential properties: insights from a mathematical model. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 275(1):H301–H321, 1998.

[56]

Nicholas Moss Ph. D. Subject matter expert. Associate Professor Department of Cell Biology and Physiology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

[57]

Albert Dahan, Leon Aarts, and Terry W Smith. Incidence, reversal, and prevention of opioid-induced respiratory depression. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 112(1):226–238, 2010.

[58]

Ranjan K Dash and James B Bassingthwaighte. Erratum to: Blood hbo2 and hbco2 dissociation curves at varied o2, co2, ph, 2, 3-dpg and temperature levels. Annals of biomedical engineering, 38(4):1683–1701, 2010.

[59]

Kelsey Davenport. Sarin attack prompts us strikes. Arms Control Today, 47(4):22, 2017.

[60]

Noam David, Hagit Messer, and Pinhas Alpert. Humidity measurements using commercial microwave links. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2011.

[61]

Bernard De Bruyne, Ganesh Manoharan, Nico HJ Pijls, Katia Verhamme, Juraj Madaric, Jozef Bartunek, Marc Vanderheyden, and Guy R Heyndrickx. Assessment of renal artery stenosis severity by pressure gradient measurements. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 48(9):1851–1855, 2006.

[62]

Richard J de Dear, Edward Arens, Zhang Hui, and Masayuki Oguro. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments. International Journal of Biometeorology, 40(3):141–156, 1997.

[63]

MR De Leval, G Dubini, and others. Use of computational fluid dynamics in the design of surgical procedures: application to the study of competitive flows in cavopulmonary connections. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 111(3):502–513, 1996.

[64]

Natália Valadares de Moraes, Gabriela Rocha Lauretti, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira Filgueira, Bruno Carvalho Portes Lopes, and Vera Lucia Lanchote. Analysis of rocuronium in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with application in clinical pharmacokinetics. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 90:180–185, 2014.

[65]

RFA Dean and RA McCance. The renal responses of infants and adults to the administration of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride and urea. The Journal of physiology, 109(1-2):81, 1949.

[66]

A Deepak, Rao Le, and Vikas Tao Bhushan. First aid for the usmle step 1 2008 (first aid for the usmle step 1).

[67]

Reinaldo T Delfino, Tatiana S Ribeiro, and José D Figueroa-Villar. Organophosphorus compounds as chemical warfare agents: a review. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 20(3):407–428, 2009.

[68]

Sapir D.G. and O.E. Owen. renal conservation of ketone bodies during starvation. Metabolism, 24(1):23–33, 1975.

[69]

SH Dhakam and L Khalid. A review of cardiogenic shock in acute myocardial infarction. Current cardiology reviews, 4(1):34–40, 2008.

[70]

Vikram Dhawan and Michael DeGeorgia. Neurointensive care biophysiological monitoring. Journal of neurointerventional surgery, pages neurintsurg–2011, 2011.

[71]

DB Dill and David L Costill. Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 37(2):247–248, 1974.

[72]

JV Divatia, K Bhowmick, and others. Complications of endotracheal intubation and other airway management procedures. Indian J Anaesth, 49(4):308–18, 2005.

[73]

Daniel Doberer, Georg-Christian Funk, Karl Kirchner, and Bruno Schneeweiss. A critique of stewart?s approach: the chemical mechanism of dilutional acidosis. Intensive care medicine, 35(12):2173–2180, 2009.

[74]

MJ Donald and B Paterson. End tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in prehospital and retrieval medicine: a review. Emergency medicine journal, 23(9):728–730, 2006.

[75]

G. Zini G. Caenaro M. Tommasi d'Onofrio G., R. Chirillo and G. Micciulli. Simultaneous measurement of reticulocyte and red blood cell indices in healthy subjects and patients with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. Blood, 85(3):818–823, 1995.

[76]

EMR Doppenberg, A Zauner, JC Watson, and Ross Bullock. Determination of the ischemic threshold for brain oxygen tension. In Intracranial Pressure and Neuromonitoring in Brain Injury, pages 166–169. Springer, 1998.

[77]

D John Doyle and Allen Keebler. Another failure mechanism leading to patient-controlled analgesia overdoses. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 55(5):319–320, 2008.

[78]

D Du Bois and EF Du Bois. A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. 1916. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 5(5):303, 1989.

[79]

Arthur B DuBois, Stella Y Botelho, and Julius H Comroe Jr. A new method for measuring airway resistance in man using a body plethysmograph: values in normal subjects and in patients with respiratory disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 35(3):327, 1956.

[80]

MARTIN DUKE and WALTER H ABELMANN. The hemodynamic response to chronic anemia. Circulation, 39(4):503–515, 1969.

[81]

Mark H Ebell. Outpatient vs. inpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Family practice management, 13(4):41, 2006.

[82]

Mark H Ebell. Predicting pneumonia in adults with respiratory illness. American family physician, 76(4), 2007.

[83]

Andrea N Edginton, Walter Schmitt, and Stefan Willmann. Development and evaluation of a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for children. Clinical pharmacokinetics, 45(10):1013–1034, 2006.

[84]

Normal hemodynamic parameters and laboratory values.

[85]

Effros and others. Vascular and extravascular volumes of the kidney of man. Circulation Research, 1967.

[86]

Mohammad El-Orbany and M Ramez Salem. Endotracheal tube cuff leaks: causes, consequences, and management. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 117(2):428–434, 2013.

[87]

M Elia, C Crozier, and G Neale. Mineral metabolism during short-term starvation in man. Clinica chimica acta, 139(1):37–45, 1984.

[88]

Marielle PKJ Engelen, Nicolaas EP Deutz, Emiel FM Wouters, and Annemie MWJ Schols. Enhanced levels of whole-body protein turnover in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 162(4):1488–1492, 2000.

[89]

Mariëlle PKJ Engelen, Emiel FM Wouters, Nicolaas EP Deutz, Paul PCA Menheere, and Annemie MWJ Schols. Factors contributing to alterations in skeletal muscle and plasma amino acid profiles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 72(6):1480–1487, 2000.

[90]

Garber A.J. et al. Hepatic ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis in humans. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 54:981–989, 1974.

[91]

Christie J. et al. Determination of stroke volume and cardiac output during exercise: comparison of two-dimension and dopper echocardiography, fick oximetry, and thermodilution. Circulation, 76(3):539–547, 1987.

[92]

Griffin M. J. et al. Core and peripheral temperature response to exercise in patients with impaired left ventricular function. British Heart Journal, (69):388–390, 1993.

[93]

Stergiopulos N. et al. Determinants of stroke volume and systolic and diastolic aortic pressure. The American Physiological Society, 1996.

[94]

Perko M. J. et al. Mesentric, coeliac and splanchnic blood flow in humans during exercise. Hournal of Physiology, 3(513):907–913, 1998.

[95]

Blake A.S.T. et al. Effects of changes in packed cell volume on the specific heat capacity of blood: implications for studies measuring heat exchange in extracorporeal circuits. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 1(84):28–32, 2000.

[96]

Hudsmuth L.E. et al. Normal human left and right ventricular and left atrial dimensions using steady state free precession magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, (7):775–782, 2005.

[97]

Still A. et al. Prevalence, characteristics and natural course of inappropriate sinus tachycardia. The European Society of Cardiology, 7(2):104–112, 2005.

[98]

Talebipour B. et al. Effects of sauna on cardiovascular and lifestyle-related diseases. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 12(4):193e–197e, 2006.

[99]

Guenette J. A. et al. respiratory mechanics during exercise in endurance-trained men and women. Journal of Physiology, 3(581):1309–1322, 2007.

[100]

Berg RA et al. 2010 american heart association for guidelines for cardiopulmonary resusciation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation, (122):S685–S705, 2010.

[101]

Zhang D. et al. Effects of acute hypoxia on heart rate variability, sample entropy and cardiorespiratory phase synchronization. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 73(13):1–12, 2014.

[102]

Ronald Faust. Anesthesiology review. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2002.

[103]

Françoise Fery and EO Balasse. Ketone body turnover during and after exercise in overnight-fasted and starved humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 245(4):E318–E325, 1983.

[104]

Dusan Fiala, Kevin J Lomas, and Martin Stohrer. A computer model of human thermoregulation for a wide range of environmental conditions: the passive system. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(5):1957–1972, 1999.

[105]

James Figge, Thomas Mydosh, and Vladimir Fencl. Serum proteins and acid-base equilibria: a follow-up. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 120(5):713–719, 1992.

[106]

Michael J Fine, Thomas E Auble, Donald M Yealy, Barbara H Hanusa, Lisa A Weissfeld, Daniel E Singer, Christopher M Coley, Thomas J Marrie, and Wishwa N Kapoor. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. New England journal of medicine, 336(4):243–250, 1997.

[107]

Pamela Flood, James P Rathmell, and Steven Shafer. Stoelting's pharmacology and physiology in anesthetic practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015.

[108]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical growth charts, 2016.

[109]

Luca Formaggia, Daniele Lamponi, and Alfio Quarteroni. One-dimensional models for blood flow in arteries. Journal of engineering mathematics, 47(3-4):251–276, 2003.

[110]

Otto Frank. Die grundform des arteriellen pulses. Z Biol, 37(483-526):19, 1899.

[111]

Emeline Fresnel, Jean-Francois Muir, and Christophe Lettelier. Realistic human muscle pressure for driving a mechanical lung. EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics, 2(7), 2014.

[112]

Yasuhiro Fukui and N. Ty Smith. Interactions among ventilation, the circulation, and distribution of halothane – use of a hybrid computer multiple model. Anesthesiology, 54:107 – 118, 1981.

[113]

Fukui. A Study of the Human Cardiovascular-Respiratory System using Hybrid Computer Modeling. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1972.

[114]

Michael J. Murray MD PhD G. Edward Morgan Jr. MD, Maged S. Mikhail MD. Clinical Anesthesiology. Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 4 edition, 2006.

[115]

Dhanya Gangadharan, K Madhavan Nampoothiri, Swetha Sivaramakrishnan, and Ashok Pandey. Biochemical characterization of raw-starch-digesting alpha amylase purified from bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 158(3):653–662, 2009.

[116]

William F Ganong and Kim E Barrett. Review of medical physiology. Appleton & Lange Norwalk, CT, 1995.

[117]

A. J. Garber, P. H. Menzel, G. Boden, and O. E. Owen. Hepatic Ketogenesis and Gluconeogenesis in Humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 54(4):981–989, October 1974.

[118]

MA Garrioch and others. The body's response to blood loss. Vox Sang, 87(suppl 1):74–6, 2004.

[119]

K Glänzer, B Prüßing, R Düsing, and HJ Kramer. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to 8-arginine-vasopressin in healthy man: effects of indomethacin. Klinische Wochenschrift, 60(19):1234–1239, 1982.

[120]

Jeffery R. Kirsch Glenn Woodworth, Shannon Sayers-Rana. The Anesthesia Technician & Technologists's Manual. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kilwer business, 2012.

[121]

Ary L Goldberger, Luis AN Amaral, Leon Glass, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Plamen Ch Ivanov, Roger G Mark, Joseph E Mietus, George B Moody, Chung-Kang Peng, and H Eugene Stanley. Physiobank, physiotoolkit, and physionet components of a new research resource for complex physiologic signals. Circulation, 101(23):e215–e220, 2000.

[122]

Juan Camilo Gómez, Lina Paola Melo, Yuliana Orozco, Gustavo Adolfo Chicangana, and Diana Carolina Osorio. Estimation of the optimum length of endotracheal tube insertion in adults. Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology, 2016.

[123]

Louis Sanford Goodman and others. Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, volume

  1. McGraw-Hill New York, 1996.

[124]

John S Gray. Pulmonary ventilation and its physiological regulation. Southern Medical Journal, 44(11):1086, 1951.

[125]

Jacob Greisen, Claus B Juhl, Thorbjorn Grofte, Hendrik Vilstrup, Troels S Jensen, and Ole Schmitz. Acute pain induces insulin resistance in humans. Anesthesiology, 95(1):558–584, 2001.

[126]

David Grob and John C Harvey. Effects in man of the anticholinesterase compound sarin (isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate). Journal of Clinical Investigation, 37(3):350, 1958.

[127]

Fred S Grodins, John S Gray, Karl R Schroeder, Arthur L Norins, and Richard W Jones. respiratory responses to co2 inhalation. a theoretical study of a nonlinear biological regulator. Journal of applied physiology, 7(3):283–308, 1954.

[128]

Fred S Grodins, June Buell, and Alex J Bart. Mathematical analysis and digital simulation of the respiratory control system. Cancer, 9608:04, 1967.

[129]

Gropper and Smith. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 6 edition, 2013.

[130]

Kreg G Gruben, John Romlein, Henry R Halperin, and Joshua E Tsitlik. System for mechanical measurements during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans. Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, 37(2):204–210, 1990.

[131]

Lowest heart rate. Website, August 2005.

[132]

Kavita Gumbhir-Shah, Donald J Kellerman, Sidney DeGraw, Patrick Koch, and William J Jusko. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and safety of inhaled albuterol enantiomers in healthy volunteers. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 38(12):1096–1106, 1998.

[133]

Kevin EJ Gunning. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure and indications for respiratory support. Surgery (Oxford), 21(3):72–76, 2003.

[134]

Jitendra K Gupta, Chao-Hsin Lin, and Qingyan Chen. Characterizing exhaled airflow from breathing and talking. Indoor air, 20(1):31–39, 2010.

[135]

Guyton and Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Elsevier, 11 edition, 2006.

[136]

Arthur C Guyton, Arthur W Lindsey, and Berwind N Kaufmann. Effect of mean circulatory filling pressure and other peripheral circulatory factors on cardiac output. American Journal of Physiology–Legacy Content, 180(3):463–468, 1955.

[137]

Hosomi H. and Sagawa K. Effect of pentoarbital anesthesia on hypotension after 10% hemorrhage in the dog. American Journal of Physiology, pages H607–H612, 1979.

[138]

Spodick D. H. Pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade. CHEST, 113:1372–1378, 1998.

[139]

John E Hall. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders, 12th edition, 2011.

[140]

MARGARETA M Hammarlund, B Odlind, and LK Paalzow. Acute tolerance to furosemide diuresis in humans. pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 233(2):447–453, 1985.

[141]

ASHRAE Handbook and others. Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, 2013.

[142]

Mary Fran Hazinski and John M Field. 2010 american heart association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science. Circulation, 122(Suppl):S639–S946, 2010.

[143]

Jennifer A Healey and Rosalind W Picard. Detecting stress during real-world driving tasks using physiological sensors. Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 6(2):156–166, 2005.

[144]

Thomas Heldt. Computational models of cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.

[145]

Irving Herman. Physics of the Human Body. Springer, 2007.

[146]

Robert L Hester, Alison J Brown, Leland Husband, Radu Iliescu, Drew Pruett, Richard Summers, and Thomas G Coleman. Hummod: a modeling environment for the simulation of integrative human physiology. Frontiers in physiology, 2, 2011.

[147]

Geoffrey F. Hewitt. Lewis relationship, 2015.

[148]

William C Hinds. Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles. Wiley, 2 edition, 1999.

[149]

Munther K. Homoud. Introduction to cv pathophysiology. http://ocw.tufts.edu/data/50/636804.pdf, 2008. Accessed: 2016-12-12.

[150]

W Huisinga, A Solms, L Fronton, and S Pilari. Modeling interindividual variability in physiologically based pharmacokinetics and its link to mechanistic covariate modeling. CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology, 1(9):e4, 2012.

[151]

Elspeth J Hulse, James OJ Davies, A John Simpson, Alfred M Sciuto, and Michael Eddleston. Respiratory complications of organophosphorus nerve agent and insecticide poisoning. implications for respiratory and critical care. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 190(12):1342–1354, 2014.

[152]

ISO. Ergonomics of the thermal environment - analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the pmv and ppd indices and local thermal comfort criteria. ISO 7730:2006 32000‒1:2008, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.

[153]

Papiashvili M.-Potylchansky Elena Izakson, A. and T. Ezri. Complete airway obstruction by foreign body: another anesthetic challenge. a brief review. Journal Roman de Anestezie Terapie Intensiva, 20(2):125–129, 2013.

[154]

Stig Jarnum and Kurt Birger Jensen. Plasma protein turnover (albumin, transferrin, igg, igm) in ménétrier's disease (giant hypertrophic gastritis): Evidence of non-selective protein loss. Gut, 13(2):128–137, 1972.

[155]

Arthur T. Johnson and Cathryn R. Dooly. Exercise physiology. In Joseph D Bronzino, editor, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, chapter 26. CRC press, 2000.

[156]

SE Kahn. The relative contributions of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 46(1):3–19, 2003.

[157]

Cesar A Keller. Pathophysiology and classification of emphysema. Chest surgery clinics of North America, 13(4):589–613, 2003.

[158]

John A Kellum and Paul WG Elbers. Stewart's textbook of acid-base. Lulu. com, 2009.

[159]

Jannet M Rennie & Giles Kendall. A manual of neonatal intensive care. 5 edition, 2013.

[160]

W. Larry Kenney. Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, Chapter 42 - Heat and Cold. International Labour Organization, 4 edition, 1999.

[161]

Feras Khalil and Stephanie Läer. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling: methodology, applications, and limitations with a focus on its role in pediatric drug development. BioMed Research International, 2011, 2011.

[162]

M Khazaei, M Nematbakhsh, and A Moradi. A new equation for calculation of colloid osmotic pressure based on serum total protein concentration and uv-light absorption. Current Anaesthesia & Critical Care, 19(1):8–11, 2008.

[163]

MICHAEL CK KHOO, RICHARD E KRONAUER, KINGMAN P STROHL, and ARTHUR S SLUTSKY. Factors inducing periodic breathing in humans- a general model. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology, 53:644–659, 1982.

[164]

et al. Khoo, M. Factors inducing periodic breathing in humans: a general model. J. Appl. Physiol. Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 53:644–659, 1982.

[165]

Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang, Christopher C Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Jang Young Kim, Byung Su Yoo, Seung Hwan Lee, Jung Han Yoon, Kyung Hoon Choe, and Adam J Singer. Direction of blood flow from the left ventricle during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans-its implications for mechanism of blood flow. American heart journal, 156(6):1222–e1, 2008.

[166]

Enoh N Kingsly. Severe traumatic brain injury and anisocoria: A search for management guidelines in a setting where facilities are not available or very limited. Art and Science of Neurosurgery, 1(1):1–10, 2012.

[167]

Richard Klabunde. Cardiovascular physiology concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.

[168]

Richard E. Klabunde. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2 edition, 2012.

[169]

Isidor Kokalari, Theodhor Karaja, and Maria Guerrisi. Review on lumped parameter method for modeling the blood flow in systemic arteries. 2013.

[170]

Arun V Kolanjiyil and Clement Kleinstreuer. Computationally efficient analysis of particle transport and deposition in a human whole-lung-airway model. part i: Theory and model validation. Computers in biology and medicine, 79:193–204, 2016.

[171]

N Koutlianos, E Dimitros, T Metaxas, M Cansiz, AS Deligiannis, and E Kouidi. Indirect estimation of vo2max in athletes by acsm's equation: valid or not? Hippokratia, 17(2):136, 2013.

[172]

EMR Kovacs, JMG Senden, and F Brouns. Urine color, osmolality and specific electrical conductance are not accurate measures of hydration status during postexercise rehydration. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 39(1):47, 1999.

[173]

Sluss PM et al Kratz A, Ferraro M. Case records of the massachusetts general hospital: laboratory values. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(15):1549–1563, October 2004.

[174]

J.A. Krishnan and R. G. Brower. High-frequency ventilation for acute lung injury and ards. CHEST, 118:795–807, 2000.

[175]

Spiros D Ladas, Christos Latoufis, Hariklea Giannopoulou, John Hatziioannou, and Sotos A Raptis. Reproducible lactulose hydrogen breath test as a measure of mouth-to-cecum transit time. Digestive diseases and sciences, 34(6):919–924, 1989.

[176]

Meir Lahav, Arie Regev, Pia Ra'anani, and Emanuel Theodor. Intermittent administration of furosemide vs continuous infusion preceded by a loading dose for congestive heart failure. Chest, 102(3):725–731, 1992.

[177]

Anne Landais. Severe memory impairment following acute morphine intoxication. Journal of the neurological sciences, 343(1):242–244, 2014.

[178]

Werner Lang. Comment on:?a critique of stewart?s approach: the chemical mechanism of dilutional acidosis? Intensive care medicine, 36(9):1624–1625, 2010.

[179]

Mary M Lawnick, Howard R Champion, Thomas Gennarelli, Michael R Galarneau, Edwin D'Souza, Ross R Vickers, Vern Wing, Brian J Eastridge, Lee Ann Young, Judy Dye, and others. Combat injury coding: a review and reconfiguration. Journal of trauma and acute care surgery, 75(4):573–581, 2013.

[180]

Anita T Layton. A mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism in the rat renal medulla. i. formulation and base-case results. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 300(2):F356–F371, 2011.

[181]

S Leigh-Smith and T Harris. Tension pneumothorax-time for a re-think? Emergency medicine journal: EMJ, 22(1):8, 2005.

[182]

Michael G. Levitzky. Pulmonary Physiology. 8 edition, 2013.

[183]

Daniel Limmer. Emergency care. Pearson, United States, 2011.

[184]

DS Lindblad, CR Murphey, JW Clark, and WR Giles. A model of the action potential and underlying membrane currents in a rabbit atrial cell. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 271(4):H1666–H1696, 1996.

[185]

Kai Linko and Markku Paloheimo. Monitoring of the inspired and end-tidal oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide concentrations: clinical applications during anesthesia and recovery. Journal of clinical monitoring, 5(3):149–156, 1989.

[186]

Geoffrey Livesey. The energy equivalents of atp and the energy values of food proteins and fats. British Journal of Nutrition, 51:15–28, 1984.

[187]

Lloyd and others. The relation between alveolar oxygen pressure and the respiratory response to carbon dioxide in man. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology and Cognate Medical Sciences, 1958.

[188]

Stephen H Lockhart, Ira J Rampil, Nobuhiko Yasuda, EI Eger 2nd, and RB Weiskopf. Depression of ventilation by desflurane in humans. Anesthesiology, 74(3):484–488, 1991.

[189]

L Lorandi, B Diong, P Nava, F Solis, R Menendez, G Ortiz, and H Nazeran. Parametric sensitivity analysis of human respiratory impedance. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2003. Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, volume 1, pages 778–781. IEEE, 2003.

[190]

Jörn Lötsch, Carsten Skarke, Helmut Schmidt, Jürgen Liefhold, and Gerd Geisslinger. Pharmacokinetic modeling to predict morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide plasma concentrations in healthy young volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 72(2):151–162, 2002.

[191]

Jörn Lötsch. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modeling of opioids. Journal of pain and symptom management, 29(5):90–103, 2005.

[192]

CC Lu, CS Tsai, ST Ho, CM Chueng, JJ Wang, CS Wong, SY Chang, and CY Lin. Pharmacokinetics of desflurane uptake into the brain and body. Anaesthesia, 59(3):216–221, 2004.

[193]

Chunyuan Luo, Min Tong, Nageswararao Chilukuri, Karen Brecht, Donald M Maxwell, and Ashima Saxena. An in vitro comparative study on the reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited guinea pig and human acetylcholinesterases by oximes. Biochemistry, 46(42):11771–11779, 2007.

[194]

Gheorghiade M and P.S. Pang. Acute heart failure syndromes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53:557–573, 2009.

[195]

Frances M. and D. Pate. Critical Care Nursing of Infants and Children. University of Pennsylvania Scholarly Commons, 2001.

[196]

PE Macintyre, JA Loadsman, and DA Scott. Opioids, ventilation and acute pain management. Anaesthesia and intensive care, 39(4):545, 2011.

[197]

Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich, John-Michael Gamble, A Senthilselvan, and Thomas J Marrie. Oxygen saturations less than 92% are associated with major adverse events in outpatients with pneumonia: a population-based cohort study. Clinical infectious diseases, page ciq076, 2010.

[198]

M. L. Mallet. Pathophysiology of accidental hypothermia. Q J Med, 9(95):775–785, 2002.

[199]

SF Paul Man, Finlay A McAlister, Nick R Anthonisen, and Don D Sin. Contemporary management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: clinical applications. Jama, 290(17):2313–2316, 2003.

[200]

Kevin Mange, Dean Matsuura, Borut Cizman, Haydee Soto, Fuad N Ziyadeh, Stanley Goldfarb, and Eric G Neilson. Language guiding therapy: the case of dehydration versus volume depletion. Annals of internal medicine, 127(9):848–853, 1997.

[201]

J Michael Mangrum and John P DiMarco. The evaluation and management of bradycardia. New England Journal of Medicine, 342(10):703–709, 2000.

[202]

Mantoni and others. Reduced cerebral perfusion on sudden immersion in ice water: A possible cause of drowning. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 2007.

[203]

Masuzawa and others. cardiovascular simulation using a multiple modeling method on a digital computer-simulation of interaction between the cardiovascular system and angiotensin ii. Journal of Clinical Monitoring, 1992.

[204]

Rajat Mathur, I JANE COX, Angela Oatridge, Daniel T Shephard, Rory J Shaw, and Simon D Taylor-Robinson. Cerebral bioenergetics in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 160(6):1994–1999, 1999.

[205]

Ronald J Maughan, Stuart J Merson, Nick P Broad, and Susan M Shirreffs. Fluid and electrolyte intake and loss in elite soccer players during training. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 14(3):333–346, 2004.

[206]

Joseph W McCutchan and Craig L Taylor. respiratory heat exchange with varying temperature and humidity of inspired air. Journal of Applied Physiology, 4(2):121–135, 1951.

[207]

Regina M McDevitt, Sarah J Bott, Marilyn Harding, W Andrew Coward, Leslie J Bluck, and Andrew M Prentice. De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese women. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 74(6):737–746, 2001.

[208]

C McLoughlin. Influence of dose on suxamethonium-induced muscle damage. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 73(2):194–198, 1994.

[209]

A.; Nic M.; Jirat J.; Kosata B.; Jenkins A McNaught, A. D.; Wilkinson. IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2014.

[210]

Bryan Bergeron MD. Subject matter expert. Archetype Technologies Inc.

[211]

Rbc indices. Website, December 2015.

[212]

Ruben Meerman and Andrew J Brown. When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go? BMJ, 349:g7257, 2014.

[213]

Bruno Melin, Nathalie Koulmann, Chantal Jimenez, Gustave Savourey, Jean-Claude Launay, Jean-Marie Cottet-Emard, Jean-Marc Pequignot, Anne-Marie Allevard, and Claude Gharib. Comparison of passive heat or exercise-induced dehydration on renal water and electrolyte excretion: the hormonal involvement. European journal of applied physiology, 85(3-4):250–258, 2001.

[214]

Rodney Metoyer, Jenn Carter, Bryan Bergeron, Austin Baird, Aaron Bray, Rachel B. Clipp, M. Cameron Thames, and Jeff Webb. A framework for multiscale physiology: Towards individualized computer simulation. In Alfons Hoekstra, editor, VPH2016 book of abstracts. University of Amsterdam, 2016.

[215]

Rodney Metoyer. Subject matter expert. Combat medic.

[216]

Leena H Mildh, Harry Scheinin, and Olli A Kirvelä. The concentration-effect relationship of the respiratory depressant effects of alfentanil and fentanyl. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 93(4):939–946, 2001.

[217]

Howard T Milhorn Jr, Richard Benton, Richard Ross, and Arthur C Guyton. A mathematical model of the human respiratory control system. Biophysical Journal, 5(1):27–46, 1965.

[218]

Vuk Milisic and Alfio Quarteroni. Analysis of lumped parameter models for blood flow simulations and their relation with 1d models. ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis, 38(04):613–632, 2004.

[219]

J Möhring, K Glänzer, JA Maciel Jr, R Däsing, HJ Kramer, R Arbogast, and J Koch-Weser. Greatly enhanced pressor response to antidiuretic hormone in patients with impaired cardiovascular reflexes due to idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology, 2(4):367–376, 1980.

[220]

Stig Bousgaard Mortensen, Anna Helga Jónsdóttir, Søren Klim, and Henrik Madsen. Introduction to pk/pd modelling-with focus on pk and stochastic differential equations. Technical report, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Informatics, Building 321, 2008.

[221]

Robert Moss and S Randall Thomas. Hormonal regulation of salt and water excretion: a mathematical model of whole kidney function and pressure natriuresis. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 306(2):F224–F248, 2014.

[222]

Robert Moss, Ed Kazmierczak, Michael Kirley, and Peter Harris. A computational model for emergent dynamics in the kidney. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 367(1896):2125–2140, 2009.

[223]

Department of defense modeling and simulation coordination office: M&s glossary. http://msco.mil/MSGlossary_TRM_E-H.html. Accessed: 2016-12-01.

[224]

DJ Murray-Smith and A Pack. Techniques of computer simulation applied to respiratory gas exchange. 1977.

[225]

Natalie Digate Muth. What are the guidelines for percentage of body fat loss? Fit Life, 2009.

[226]

L Gabriel Navar and L Lee Hamm. The kidney in blood pressure regulation. Atlas of Diseases of the Kidney. Hypertension and the Kidney, 3:1–1, 1999.

[227]

British Thoracic Society Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: Quick Reference Guide, 2014.

[228]

Stephen P Newman, AW Weisz, Neda Talaee, and StewartW Clarke. Improvement of drug delivery with a breath actuated pressurised aerosol for patients with poor inhaler technique. Thorax, 46(10):712–716, 1991.

[229]

Stephen P Newman. Aerosol deposition considerations in inhalation therapy. Chest, 88(2):152S–160S, 1985.

[230]

Stephen P Newman. Principles of metered-dose inhaler design. Respiratory care, 50(9):1177–1190, 2005.

[231]

What is sudden cardiac arrest?, 2015.

[232]

Timothy David Noakes. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis. Front Physiol, 3(82):1–13, 2012.

[233]

Kim A Noble and Chris Pasero. Opioid-induced ventilatory impairment (oivi). Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 29(2):143–151, 2014.

[234]

H Nozaki, S Hori, Y Shinozawa, S Fujishima, K Takuma, H Kimura, M Suzuki, and N Aikawa. Relationship between pupil size and acetylcholinesterase activity in patients exposed to sarin vapor. Intensive care medicine, 23(9):1005–1007, 1997.

[235]

Panel of Anesthesiologists. Duke university medical center. Work completed as part of the HumanSim: Sedation and Airway project funded by TATRC contract number W81XWH-11-C-0045, 2013.

[236]

Institute of Medicine (US). Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Panel on Macronutrients Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academies Press, 2005.

[237]

Baylor College of Medicine. Cardiovascular response to stress. Physiological Reviews, 71(1):305–330, 1991.

[238]

KOSEI Ohta, KK Makinen, and WALTER J Loesche. Purification and characterization of an enzyme produced by treponema denticola capable of hydrolyzing synthetic trypsin substrates. Infection and immunity, 53(1):213–220, 1986.

[239]

AVM Oliveira, VJ Branco, AR Gaspar, and DA Quintela. Measuring thermal insulation of clothing with different manikin control methods. comparative analysis of the calculation methods. In The 7th International Meeting on Manikins and Modelling (7I3M)[CD-ROM]. Coimbra, Portugal: Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Portugal, 2008.

[240]

Erik Olofsen, Eveline van Dorp, Luc Teppema, Leon Aarts, Terry W Smith, Albert Dahan, and Elise Sarton. Naloxone reversal of morphine-and morphine-6-glucuronide-induced respiratory depression in healthy volunteersa mechanism-based pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modeling study. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 112(6):1417–1427, 2010.

[241]

Mette S Olufsen and Ali Nadim. On deriving lumped models for blood flow and pressure in the systemic arteries. Math Biosci Eng, 1(1):61–80, 2004.

[242]

World Health Organization. Bmi classification, 2006.

[243]

Otis and Proctor. Measurement of alveolar pressure in human subjects. American Journal of Physiology, 1947.

[244]

Johnny T Ottesen, Mette S Olufsen, and Jesper K Larsen. Applied mathematical models in human physiology. SIAM, 2004.

[245]

Frank J Overdyk, Rickey Carter, Ray R Maddox, Jarred Callura, Amy E Herrin, and Craig Henriquez. Continuous oximetry/capnometry monitoring reveals frequent desaturation and bradypnea during patient-controlled analgesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 105(2):412–418, 2007.

[246]

Frank Overdyk, Albert Dahan, Margot Roozekrans, Rutger van der Schrier, Leon Aarts, and Marieke Niesters. Opioid-induced respiratory depression in the acute care setting: a compendium of case reports. Pain management, 4(4):317–325, 2014.

[247]

OE Owen and George A Reichard Jr. Human forearm metabolism during progressive starvation. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50(7):1536, 1971.

[248]

Spyros Papiris, Anastasia Kotanidou, Katerina Malagari, and Charis Roussos. Clinical review: severe asthma. Critical Care, 6(1):30, 2001.

[249]

Kotanidou A. Malagari K. Roussos C. Papiris, S. Clinical review: Severe asthma. Critical Care, 6:30–44, 2002.

[250]

Robert K Stoelting Michael K Cahalan M Christine Stock Paul G Barash, Bruce F Cullen. Handbook of Clinical Anesthesia. Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6 edition, 2009.

[251]

Adela Penesova, Zofia Radikova, Eva Cizmarova, Richard Kvetnansky, Pavel Blazicek, Miroslav Vlcek, Juraj Koska, and Milan Vigas. The role of norepinephrine and insulin resistance in an early stage of hypertension. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1148(1):490–494, 2008.

[252]

R Perez-Padilla, WM Vollmer, JC Vázquez-García, PL Enright, AMB Menezes, and AS Buist. Can a normal peak expiratory flow exclude severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease: the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(3):387, 2009.

[253]

J. Simons Peter Bartsch and R. Gibbs. Effect of high altitude on the heart and lungs. Circulation, (116):2191–2202, 2007.

[254]

Kitt Falk Petersen, Thomas B Price, and Raynald Bergeron. Regulation of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis during exercise: impact of type 1 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(9):4656–4664, 2004.

[255]

Beth H Pettitt, Jack Norfleet, and CR Descheneaux. task specific simulations for medical training: fidelity requirements compared with levels of care. Technical report, DTIC Document, 2009.

[256]

Barrie Phypers and Tom Pierce. Lactate physiology in health and disease. British Journal of Anesthesia, 6(3):128–132, 2006.

[257]

David J Pierson. Pathophysiology and clinical effects of chronic hypoxia. Respiratory care, 45(1):39–51, 2000.

[258]

Karlis Purins, Per Enblad, Lars Wiklund, and Anders Lewén. Brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds of ischemia in a standardized pig brain death model. Neurocritical care, 16(3):462–469, 2012.

[259]

Halliwill J. R. and C. T. Minson. Retrograde shear: backwards into the future? American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 298(4):1126–1127, 2010.

[260]

Gabriel Scott Rachel B Clipp. Humansim: A physiology engine for the simulation of anesthesia/anaphylaxis training. Clinical Skills Sustainment. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS), August 2012.

[261]

Marcus E Raichle and Debra A Gusnard. Appraising the brain's energy budget. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(16):10237–10239, 2002.

[262]

Maria LV Ramires, Carlos A Nieto de Castro, Yuchi Nagasaka, Akira Nagashima, Marc J Assael, and William A Wakeham. Standard reference data for the thermal conductivity of water. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 24(3):1377–1381, 1995.

[263]

VM Ranieri, GD Rubenfeld, BT Thompson, ND Ferguson, E Caldwell, E Fan, L Camporota, and AS Slutsky. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the berlin definition. jama: the journal of the american medical association. 2012; 307 (23): 2526–33. Technical report, Epub 2012/07/17.

[264]

Rita F Redberg, Kelly J Tucker, Todd J Cohen, John P Dutton, Michael L Callaham, and Nelson B Schiller. Physiology of blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. a transesophageal echocardiographic study. Circulation, 88(2):534–542, 1993.

[265]

Timothy E Reinhardt and Roger D Ottmar. Smoke exposure at western wildfires. 2000.

[266]

Rodney A. Rhoades and David R. Bell. Medical Phisiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine (MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (RHOADES)). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.

[267]

Rodney Rhoades and George A Tanner. Medical physiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.

[268]

P.R. Rich. The molecular machinery of keilin's respiratory chain, Jul 2003.

[269]

VC Rideout and DE Dick. Difference-differential equations for fluid flow in distensible tubes. Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, (3):171–177, 1967.

[270]

Vincent C Rideout. cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education. Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, (2):101–107, 1972.

[271]

MD Riggs, Douglas S. Control theory and physiological feedback mechanisms. Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Huntington, New York, 1976.

[272]

M Roberts, M Reiss, and G Monger. Gaseous exchange. Advanced Biology, page 167, 2000.

[273]

Trudy Rodgers and Malcolm Rowland. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling 2: predicting the tissue distribution of acids, very weak bases, neutrals and zwitterions. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 95(6):1238–1256, 2006.

[274]

Trudy Rodgers, David Leahy, and Malcolm Rowland. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling 1: predicting the tissue distribution of moderate-to-strong bases. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 94(6):1259–1276, 2005.

[275]

Beth Smith Rodney Metoyer. Modeling the time-dependent intrapericardial pressure-volume relationship with effusion. World Congress of Biomechanics, July 2014.

[276]

Jason Rodriguez and Gene E McClellan. A model of medical countermeasures for organophosphates. Technical report, APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC ARLINGTON VA, 2015.

[277]

James A Romano Jr, James A Romano, Harry Salem, Brian J Lukey, and Brian J Lukey. Chemical warfare agents: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics. CRC Press, 2007.

[278]

James Q Rose, Anthony M Yurchak, and William J Jusko. Dose dependent pharmacokinetics of prednisone and prednisolone in man. Journal of pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics, 9(4):389–417, 1981.

[279]

Jason J Rose, Ling Wang, Qinzi Xu, Charles F McTiernan, Sruti Shiva, Jesus Tejero, and Mark T Gladwin. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Pathogenesis, management and future directions of therapy. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, (ja), 2016.

[280]

Sara E Rosenbaum. Basic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: An integrated textbook and computer simulations. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

[281]

DW Ross, LH Ayscue, J Watson, and SA Bentley. Stability of hematologic parameters in healthy subjects. intraindividual versus interindividual variation. American journal of clinical pathology, 90(3):262–267, 1988.

[282]

Ali A Rostami. Computational modeling of aerosol deposition in respiratory tract: a review. Inhalation toxicology, 21(4):262–290, 2009.

[283]

Patricia A Roth and Joan E Howley. Chapter 15: Anesthesia delivery systems. Stoelting, Robert K and Miller, Ronald D, Basics of Anesthesia, pages 185–206, 2000.

[284]

Patricia Ann Roth and Joan E Howley. Anesthesia delivery systems. Basic of Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, pages 185–205, 2007.

[285]

Douglas L Rothman, Inger Magnusson, Lee D Katz, Robert G Shulman, and Gerald I Shulman. Quantitation of hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in fasting humans with ^13 c nmr. Science, pages 573–576, 1991.

[286]

Julie J Roy, François Donati, Daniel Boismenu, and France Varin. Concentration–effect relation of succinylcholine chloride during propofol anesthesia. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 97(5):1082–1092, 2002.

[287]

Ravishankar M Roy K, Kundra P. Unusual foreign body airway obstruction after laryngeal mask insertion. Anesth Analg, 101:294–295, 2005.

[288]

Allan M Roza and Harry M Shizgal. The harris benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 40(1):168–182, 1984.

[289]

M Rozanek and K Roubik. Design of the mathematical model of the respiratory system using electron-acoustic analogy. World Acad Sci Eng Technol, 47:210–213, 2008.

[290]

Bari H Ruddy, Teresa E Pitts, Jeff Lehman, Brian Spector, Vicki Lewis, and Christine M Sapienza. Improved voluntary cough immediately following office-based vocal fold medialization injections. The Laryngoscope, 124(7):1645–1647, 2014.

[291]

Michael T Rudikoff, W LOWELL Maughan, MARK Effron, PAUL Freund, and MYRON L Weisfeldt. Mechanisms of blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation, 61(2):345–352, 1980.

[292]

RxList: the Internet Drug Index protopam. http://www.rxlist.com/protopam-drug/side-effects-interactions.htm. Accessed: 2016-11-23.

[293]

Prednisone side effects. http://www.safetymedical.net/prednisone-side-effects. Accessed: 2016-11-23.

[294]

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Carbon Monoxide, (accessed February 3, 2017).

[295]

Bengt Saltin. Circulatory response to submaximal and maximal exercise after thermal dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 19(6):1125–1132, 1964.

[296]

DG Sapir and OE Owen. Renal conservation of ketone bodies during starvation. Metabolism, 24(1):23–33, 1975.

[297]

Kenneth B Saunders, Hari N Bali, and Ewert R Carson. A breathing model of the respiratory system: the controlled system. Journal of theoretical biology, 84(1):135–161, 1980.

[298]

Steven M Scharf, Mobeen Iqbal, Cesar Keller, Gerald Criner, Shing Lee, and Henry E Fessler. Hemodynamic characterization of patients with severe emphysema. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 166(3):314–322, 2002.

[299]

R Schwagmeier, S Alincic, and HW Striebel. Midazolam pharmacokinetics following intravenous and buccal administration. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 46(3):203–206, 1998.

[300]

Radhika V Seimon, Ixchel M Brennan, Antonietta Russo, Tanya J Little, Karen L Jones, Scott Standfield, Judith M Wishart, Michael Horowitz, and Christine Feinle-Bisset. Gastric emptying, mouth-to-cecum transit, and glycemic, insulin, incretin, and energy intake responses to a mixed-nutrient liquid in lean, overweight, and obese males. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 304(3):E294–E300, 2013.

[301]

Shaar-Corning and Stanley Louis Bryant. Data-Stat Respiratory Therapy. 2007.

[302]

Harish Shankaran, Femi Adeshina, and Justin G Teeguarden. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for fentanyl in support of the development of provisional advisory levels. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 273(3):464–476, 2013.

[303]

Arie Shapiro, Edna Zohar, Ruth Zaslansky, David Hoppenstein, Shay Shabat, and Brian Fredman. The frequency and timing of respiratory depression in 1524 postoperative patients treated with systemic or neuraxial morphine. Journal of clinical anesthesia, 17(7):537–542, 2005.

[304]

Anita Sharma and Parul Jindal. Principles of diagnosis and management of traumatic pneumothorax. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 1(1):34, 2008.

[305]

Richard Shelquist. An introduction to air density and density altitude calculations, 2015.

[306]

SM Shirreffs and RJ Maughan. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(1):336–341, 1997.

[307]

Avraham Shitzer and Robert C Eberhart. Heat transfer in medicine and biology: analysis and applications, volume 1. Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1985.

[308]

Frederick R Sidell, Ernest T Takafuji, and David R Franz. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. Technical report, OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL (ARMY) FALLS CHURCH VA, 1997.

[309]

Ole Siggaard-Andersen. The van slyke equation. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 37(sup146):15–20, 1977.

[310]

Haroldo S Silva, Adam Kapela, and Nikolaos M Tsoukias. A mathematical model of plasma membrane electrophysiology and calcium dynamics in vascular endothelial cells. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 293(1):C277–C293, 2007.

[311]

Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, William C Ober, Claire W Garrison, and Andrew C Silverthorn. Human physiology: an integrated approach. Prentice Hall, Inc., New Jersey, second edition edition, 2001.

[312]

William E Siri. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. Techniques for measuring body composition, 61:223–44, 1961.

[313]

Shirreffs SM. Markers of hydration status. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, (40):80–84, 2000.

[314]

NT Smith, K Starko, and T Davidson. Pc-based anesthesia simulators. Society for Computing and Technology in Anaesthesia News, 8:8–9, 1995.

[315]

Zwart A. Beneken J. Smith, N. Interaction between the circulatory effects and the uptake and distribution of halothane: use of a multiple model. Anesthesiology, 37:47–85, 1972.

[316]

Dae-Won Sohn, Hyung-Kwan Kim, Jin-Shik Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Yong-Jin Kim, Zoo-Hee Zo, Byung-Hee Oh, Young-Bae Park, and Yun-Shik Choi. Hemodynamic effects of tachycardia in patients with relaxation abnormality: abnormal stroke volume response as an overlooked mechanism of dyspnea associated with tachycardia in diastolic heart failure. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 20(2):171–176, 2007.

[317]

Ryan L Spilker, Jeffrey A Feinstein, David W Parker, V Mohan Reddy, and Charles A Taylor. Morphometry-based impedance boundary conditions for patient-specific modeling of blood flow in pulmonary arteries. Annals of biomedical engineering, 35(4):546–559, 2007.

[318]

Robin A Stackhouse and Andrew Infosino. Airway management. Stoelting RK, Miller RD. Basics of Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone, pages 231–232, 2007.

[319]

Andrew A Stanley, Simon K Healey, Matthew R Maltese, and Katherine J Kuchenbecker. Recreating the feel of the human chest in a cpr manikin via programmable pneumatic damping. In Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS), 2012 IEEE, pages 37–44. IEEE, 2012.

[320]

C Michael Stein, Huai B He, and Alastair JJ Wood. Basal and stimulated sympathetic responses after epinephrine. Hypertension, 32(6):1016–1021, 1998.

[321]

LA Steiner and PJD Andrews. Monitoring the injured brain: Icp and cbf. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97(1):26–38, 2006.

[322]

John L Stephenson, Raymond Mejia, and RP Tewarson. Model of solute and water movement in the kidney. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 73(1):252–256, 1976.

[323]

Richard D Stewart. The effect of carbon monoxide on humans. Annual review of pharmacology, 15(1):409–423, 1975.

[324]

Stock and Quanjer. Reference values for residual volume, functional residual capacity and total lung capacity. European Respiratory Journal, 1995.

[325]

JOHN R Stratton, MICHAEL A Pfeifer, JAMES L Ritchie, and JEFFREY B Halter. Hemodynamic effects of epinephrine: concentration-effect study in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 58(4):1199–1206, 1985.

[326]

Richard Summers, Thomas Coleman, and Janice Meck. Development of the digital astronaut project for the analysis of the mechanisms of physiologic adaptation to microgravity: Validation of the cardiovascular system module. Acta Astronautica, 63(7):758–762, 2008.

[327]

Korakianitis T. and Y. Shi. Effects of atrial contraction, atrioventricular interaction and heart valve dynamics on human cardiovascular system response. Journal of Medical Engineering and Physics, 28:762–769, 2005.

[328]

Hirofumi Tanaka, Kevin D Monahan, and Douglas R Seals. Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 37(1):153–156, 2001.

[329]

Gregory Tardie. Glycogen replenishment after exhaustive exercise. The Sport Journal, 19, 2008.

[330]

Charles A Taylor, Mary T Draney, Joy P Ku, David Parker, Brooke N Steele, Ken Wang, and Christopher K Zarins. Predictive medicine: computational techniques in therapeutic decision-making. Computer aided surgery, 4(5):231–247, 1999.

[331]

Stephen C Textor. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis flaws in estimated glomerular filtration rate and the problem of progressive kidney injury. Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, 4(3):213–215, 2011.

[332]

PI Thompson, SP Joel, L John, JA Wedzicha, M Maclean, and ML Slevin. Respiratory depression following morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in normal subjects. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 40(2):145, 1995.

[333]

B Tidgren, PAUL Hjemdahl, ELVAR Theodorsson, and JUERG Nussberger. Renal neurohormonal and vascular responses to dynamic exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70(5):2279–2286, 1991.

[334]

William D Timmons. cardiovascular models and control. The Biomedical Engineering Handbook. CRC/IEEE Press, Connecticut, pages 2386–2403, 1995.

[335]

Akihiro Tojo and Satoshi Kinugasa. Mechanisms of glomerular albumin filtration and tubular reabsorption. International journal of nephrology, 2012, 2012.

[336]

Iva Marija Tolic, Erik Mosekilde, and Jeppe Sturis. Modeling the insulin–glucose feedback system: the significance of pulsatile insulin secretion. Journal of theoretical biology, 207(3):361–375, 2000.

[337]

P Toy, J Feiner, MK Viele, J Watson, H Yeap, and RB Weiskopf. Fatigue during acute isovolemic anemiain healthy, resting humans. Transfusion, 40(4):457–460, 2000.

[338]

R.F. Tuma, W.N. Duran, and K. Ley. Microcirculation. Handbook of physiology (Bethesda, Md.).: Cardiovascular system. Elsevier Science, 2011.

[339]

Gerard M Turino. Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry. Circulation;(United States), 63(1), 1981.

[340]

SM Upsdell, SM Leeson, PJC Brooman, and PH O'REILLY. Diuretic-induced urinary flow rates at varying clearances and their relevance to the performance and interpretation of diuresis renography. British journal of urology, 61(1):14–18, 1988.

[341]

Mauro Ursino and Elisa Magosso. Interaction among humoral and neurogenic mechanisms in ventilation control during exercise. Annals of biomedical engineering, 32(9):1286–1299, 2004.

[342]

Wikipedia User:Jmarchn. Urinary system, 2010.

[343]

Wikipedia User:Kapwatt. Lungvolumes updatedn, June 2014.

[344]

Wikipedia User:KVDP. Circulatory system en, April 2011.

[345]

Wikipedia User:LadyofHats. respiratory system complete en, June 2014.

[346]

Wikipedia User:LadyofHats. Digestive system diagram, December 2015.

[347]

Wikipedia User:Looie496. Cell membrane equivalent circuit, January 2010.

[348]

Wikipedia User:Madhero. Physiology of nephron, 2010.

[349]

Wikihow User:Wikiphoto. How to use an inhaler, December 2016.

[350]

Wikipedia User:WilfriedC. Heat_of_vaporization_(benzene+acetone+methanol+water), july 2015.

[351]

Omar S Usmani, Martyn F Biddiscombe, and Peter J Barnes. Regional lung deposition and bronchodilator response as a function of β2-agonist particle size. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 172(12):1497–1504, 2005.

[352]

J. Valentin. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: Reference values, 2002.

[353]

H. Valtin and J.A. Schafer. Renal Function: Mechanisms Preserving Fluid and Solute Balance in Health. Little, Brown, and Company, 1995.

[354]

Anne M Van Leeuwen, Debra J Poelhuis-Leth, and Mickey Lynn Bladh. Davis's comprehensive handbook of laboratory & diagnostic tests with nursing implications. FA Davis, 2015.

[355]

CP Van Schayck, C van Weel, HJM Harbers, and CLA van Herwaarden. Do physical signs reflect the degree of airflow obstruction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Scandinavian journal of primary health care, 9(4):232–238, 1991.

[356]

Sinus bradycardia, April 2010.

[357]

Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, and Charlotte W. Pratt. Fundamentals of biochemistry: life at the molecular level. Wiley, 2013.

[358]

Victor A Voicu, Horst Thiermann, Flavian Stefan Radulescu, Constantin Mircioiu, and Dalia Simona Miron. The toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of organophosphonates versus the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxime antidotes: biological consequences. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology, 106(2):73–85, 2010.

[359]

H Kenneth Walker, W Dallas Hall, and J Willis Hurst. Clinical methods.

  1. Chapter 191: Urinalysis Author David M. Roxe.

[360]

Jing Wan, Brooke Steele, Sean A Spicer, Sven Strohband, Gonzalo R Feijo o, Thomas JR Hughes, and Charles A Taylor. A one-dimensional finite element method for simulation-based medical planning for cardiovascular disease. Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering, 5(3):195–206, 2002.

[361]

Denham S Ward, J Russell Norton, Pol-Henri Guivarc'h, Ronald S Litman, and Peter L Bailey. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of propofol in a medium-chain triglyceride emulsion. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 97(6):1401–1408, 2002.

[362]

A.W.S. Watson. The relationship between tidal volume and respiratory frequency during muscular exercise. Br J Sports Med., 8:87–90, 1974.

[363]

Richard B Weiskopf, Michael K Cahalan, Pompiliu Ionescu, Edmond I Eger, Nobuhiko Yasuda, Stephen H Lockhart, Ira J Rampil, Michael Laster, Beth Freire, Natalie Peterson, and others. Cardiovascular actions of desflurane with and without nitrous oxide during spontaneous ventilation in humans. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 73(2):165–174, 1991.

[364]

Nicolaas Westerhof, Frederik Bosman, Cornelis J De Vries, and Abraham Noordergraaf. Analog studies of the human systemic arterial tree. Journal of biomechanics, 2(2):121–143, 1969.

[365]

Nico Westerhof, Jan-Willem Lankhaar, and Berend E Westerhof. The arterial windkessel. Medical & biological engineering & computing, 47(2):131–141, 2009.

[366]

Brian J Whipp, Norman Lamarra, and Susan A Ward. Obligatory anaerobiosis resulting from oxygen uptake-to-blood flow ratio dispersion in skeletal muscle: a model. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 71(2-3):147–152, 1995.

[367]

Kevin K Whitehead, Kerem Pekkan, Hiroumi D Kitajima, Stephen M Paridon, Ajit P Yoganathan, and Mark A Fogel. Nonlinear power loss during exercise in single-ventricle patients after the fontan insights from computational fluid dynamics. Circulation, 116(11 suppl):I–165, 2007.

[368]

The treatment of diarrhoea: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers. pages 1–44, 2005.

[369]

DM Wiberg, JW Bellville, O Brovko, R Maine, and TC Tai. Modeling and parameter identification of the human respiratory system. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on, 24(5):716–720, 1979.

[370]

Wikipedia. Hydraulic analogy, 2014.

[371]

Dominic JC Wilkinson, Jane M Thompson, Gavin W Lambert, Garry L Jennings, Rosemary G Schwarz, Don Jefferys, Andrea G Turner, and Murray D Esler. Sympathetic activity in patients with panic disorder at rest, under laboratory mental stress, and during panic attacks. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 55(1):511–520, 1998.

[372]

AB Williams, A Salmon, P Graham, D Galler, MJ Payton, and M Bradley. Rewarming of healthy volunteers after induced mild hypothermia: a healthy volunteer study. Emergency medicine journal, 22(3):182–184, 2005.

[373]

Barry Winn, David Whitaker, David B Elliot, and Nicholas J Phillips. Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 35:1132–1137, 1994.

[374]

Robert Wise, Michael Faurie, Manu LNG Malbrain, and Eric Hodgson. Strategies for intravenous fluid resuscitation in trauma patients. World journal of surgery, 41(5):1170–1183, 2017.

[375]

Thomas MS Wolever, David JA Jenkins, Alexandra L Jenkins, and Robert G Josse. The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 54(5):846–854, 1991.

[376]

John R Womersley. Xxiv. oscillatory motion of a viscous liquid in a thin-walled elastic tube-i: The linear approximation for long waves. Philosophical Magazine, 46(373):199–221, 1955.

[377]

JR Womersley. Oscillatory flow in arteries: the constrained elastic tube as a model of arterial flow and pulse transmission. Physics in medicine and biology, 2(2):178, 1957.

[378]

E Wrenn Wooten. The standard strong ion difference, standard total titratable base, and their relationship to the boston compensation rules and the van slyke equation for extracellular fluid. Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, 24(3):177–188, 2010.

[379]

Jacobo Wortsman, Stuart Frank, and Philip E Cryer. Adrenomedullary response to maximal stress in humans. The American journal of medicine, 77(5):779–784, 1984.

[380]

Hong Xie, Xin Wang, Gang Liu, and Guolin Wang. Analgesic effects and pharmacokinetics of a low dose of ketamine preoperatively administered epidurally or intravenously. The Clinical journal of pain, 19(5):317–322, 2003.

[381]

Ashraf Yassen, Erik Olofsen, Raymonda Romberg, Elise Sarton, Luc Teppema, Meindert Danhof, and Albert Dahan. Mechanism-based pk/pd modeling of the respiratory depressant effect of buprenorphine and fentanyl in healthy volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 81(1):50–58, 2007.

[382]

Nobuhiko Yasuda, Stephen H Lockhart, Edmond I Eger, Richard B Weiskopf, Jin Liu, Michael Laster, Shahram Taheri, Natalie A Peterson, and others. Comparison of kinetics of sevoflurane and isoflurane in humans. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 72(3):316–324, 1991.

[383]

Hsu-Chi Yeh, Richard G Cuddihy, Robert F Phalen, and I-Yiin Chang. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the proposed ncrp model and the new icrp66 model. Aerosol Science and Technology, 25(2):134–140, 1996.

[384]

Shamil Yusuf and A John Camm. Deciphering the sinus tachycardias. Clinical cardiology, 28(6):267–276, 2005.

[385]

Christian Zauner, Bruno Schneeweiss, Alexander Kranz, Christian Madl, Klaus Ratheiser, Ludwig Kramer, Erich Roth, Barbara Schneider, and Kurt Lenz. Resting energy expenditure in short-term starvation is increased as a result of an increase in serum norepinephrine. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 71(6):1511–1515, 2000.

[386]

Natalie Zelenko, Deidre Coll, Arthur T Rosenfeld, and Robert C Smith. Normal ureter size on unenhanced helical ct. American Journal of Roentgenology, 182(4):1039–1041, 2004.

[387]

Hefeng Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Jiming Hao, Lin Wan, Jingkun Jiang, Min Zhang, Heidi ES Mestl, Line WH Alnes, Kristin Aunan, and Abdel Wahid Mellouki. Chemical and size characterization of particles emitted from the burning of coal and wood in rural households in guizhou, china. Atmospheric environment, 51:94–99, 2012.

[388]

Jianguo Zhuang, Fadi Xu, Matthew J Campen, Cancan Zhang, Juan C Pena-Philippides, and Mohan L Sopori. Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 232(3):440–447, 2008.

[389]

Smith N. Ty Beneken Jan E.W.. Zwart, A. Multiple model approach to uptake and distribution of halothane: the use of an analog computer. Comput Biomed Res, 5:228–238, 1972.